Wednesday, April 04, 2012

COCONUT OIL (mfonfu oil) TREATS FUNGAL MENINGITIS IN HIV/AIDS














COCONUT OIL (mfonfu oil) TREATS FUNGAL MENINGO-ENCEPHALITIS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS
“An inspired discovery from The Almighty God, for humanity”
Bamenda – Cameroon, 02 April 2008


Dr Daniel MFONFU, MD, Independent Researcher
Tel: (237) 677 60 12 07
Website: http://www.mfonfudaniel.blogspot.com/
C/o St Mary Soledad Catholic Health Centre
P.O. Box 157 Mankon, Bamenda - Cameroon


ABSTRACT
The magnitude of fungal meningo-encephalitis has been described worldwide; it is presented as the most deadly opportunistic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS. The classical medications for the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis (amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole), are very expensive, and not available in most hospitals. Fungal infections are frequently not responsive to classical antifungal therapy. Considering the enormous emphasis on the antifungal properties of the fatty acids of the coconut oil, thus the coconut oil, in scientific literature; the natural and the non toxic nature of coconut oil; the knowledge acquired from a previous research; mfonfu oil, extracted from coconut was administered orally twice daily at a dose of 5ml to HIV/AIDS patients as treatment against fungal meningo-encephalitis.

All patients were taking antiretrovirals (ARV); those who were not on ARV were placed on ARV in the following week, except for the patient who was in coma.

The rapid recovery of the patients to treatment with coconut oil was spectacular and miraculous with the major symptoms and signs disappearing generally within the first month of starting treatment with mfonfu oil; indicating that coconut oil treats fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients, and that coconut oil is a very formidable, powerful and effective antifungal. Coconut oil will constitute the corner stone in the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients. This marvellous discovery that ‘coconut oil treats fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients’ is an inspired discovery from The Almighty God, for Humanity.

Nevertheless, the only treatment for HIV/AIDS remains prevention of the infection, because there is no specific medication against HIV yet.

The setting of the research was in Bamenda from October 2007 to March 2008, at St Mary Soledad Catholic Health Centre.


INTRODUCTION
People living with HIV/AIDS suffering from fungal meningo-encephalitis are discharged from health facilities to wait for death at home because of the inability and frustration of health personnel to provide effective treatment to them; and because of the heavy burden of bed occupancy in hospitals. Unaffordable expensive hospital bills also oblige family members of these patients to request for discharge from hospitals. Palliative care is thus offered to these patients at home until death.

Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system known collectively as the meninges. Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain. Meningo-encephalitis is manifested generally by altered neurological and mental status depending on the focal brain damage and severity of the infection.

The most common symptoms and signs are headache, fever, numbness and cramps of limbs, weakness of limbs, neck rigidity, photophobia, delirium, localized seizures, paralysis, speech alteration, hallucination, confusion, and memory loss; ending with coma.

The common causes of fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS are Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Candida Albicans, and Histoplasma capsulatum

The magnitude of fungal meningo-encephalitis has been described worldwide and is presented as the most deadly opportunistic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS.

Dumitrescu F, et al, 2005, showed that acute meningitis prevalence in HIV infected children and adolescents was around 10%; even in the presence of effective antiretroviral and etiopathogenic treatment - 24 cases (10.6%) had acute meningitis: 11 (45.8%) cryptococcal meningitis, 9 (37.5%) tuberculosis (TB) meningitis, 4 (16.7%) unknown aetiology. The rate of mortality from acute meningitis was high.

Everardo Albuquerque et al, 2000, showed that Cryptococcus neoformans causes meningitis in AIDS patients in Brazil; of the 54 specimens studied 5(9.25%) were positive.

Neil M. Ampel, 1996, states that fungal diseases are increasing among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. He identifies the fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium marneffei) and describes the infections they cause. He states that although the advent of oral azole antifungal drugs has made primary treatment and prophylaxis against fungal diseases in HIV-infected patients feasible, many questions remain to be answered before the preventive use of antifungal drugs can be advocated.

Chiara Carcianiga, 2006, states that in 1998 in a cohort study of HIV-positive South African miners 37% of all deaths in the cohort were attributed to cryptococcal meningitis; declares that results of similar investigations in Rwanda, Zimbabwe, and South Africa identified cryptococcal infection as being the leading cause of meningitis among HIV-positive patients, with in-hospital mortality ranging from 43 to 64%. Of the 2,424 incident patients for whom complete information on cryptococcal infection was available, over 27% of them died after day two of hospitalization.

Rakhmanova A, et al, 1998, in a prospective study of 160 patients (including 25 children) with positive HIV serology for fungal infections during several years, different mycoses or asymptomatic fungal infections were diagnosed in 92% of the HIV/AIDS patients, with dominance of Candidiasis, dermatophytoses and cryptococcosis. Immunocompromised patients are at increasing risk of developing invasive fungal infections; these infections have high rates of morbidity and mortality, and are frequently not responsive to classical antifungal therapy.

The classical medications for the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis are amphotericin B, flucytosine, and fluconazole (World Health Organisation); these medicines are very expensive and are not available in most hospitals. Fungal infections are frequently not responsive to classical antifungal therapy (Rakhmanova A et al).

There is an urgent need now to search for new accessible antifungal medicines for the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients. It is with this motivation that Dr Mfonfu Daniel has been working earnestly and diligently using his inherent fundamental principles and intrinsic attitude and values to carry out operational research on very elementary scientific methods of improving health care delivery to patients.

In a previous research (Mfonfu Daniel) it was observed that Candida albicans culture in a Petri dish in which coconut oil was added after 48 hours stopped growing while that without coconut oil over-grew the Petri dish. The knowledge of the composition and properties of natural oils acquired during this previous research (Mfonfu Daniel) stirred the author to extract the mfonfu oil from coconut. The mfonfu oil, used in this research, consequently has the composition and properties of the coconut oil.

The coconut oil is composed of the following fatty acids: Caproic acid C6 (0.4%), Caprylic acid C8 (7.6%), Capric acid C10 (6.7%), Lauric Acid C12 (47.8%), Myristic Acid C14 (18.0%), Palmitic Acid C16 (8.5%), Palmitoleic Acid C16:1 (0.4%), Stearic Acid C18 (2.6%), Oleic Acid C18:1 (5.8%), Linoleic Acid C18:2 (1.6%), and Arachidic Acid C20:0 (0.5%), Fig 1. (Pantzaris, T P and Mohd Jaaffar Ahmad; E. M. Goh and Lam Soon Berhad; Nigel Kinbrum)

Gudmundur Bergsson et al, 2001, showed that capric acid, a 10-carbon saturated fatty acid, causes the fastest and most effective killing of all three strains of C. albicans tested, leaving the cytoplasm disorganized and shrunken because of a disrupted or disintegrated plasma membrane. Lauric acid, a 12-carbon saturated fatty acid, was the most active at lower concentrations and after a longer incubation time.

Zdeňka Řiháková et al, 2002, illustrated that monoacylglycerols made from coconut oil have antifungal activity on Aspergillus niger.

Coaker MA et al, 2000, showed that short chain fatty acids (butyric, valeric, caproic, and caprylic acids), particularly valeric acid, have fungicidal activity for a wide range of moulds and yeasts, on even those resistant to amphotericin B. Fungicidal activity is rapid and potentially non-toxic, suggesting a potential use for these or modified short chain fatty acids as topical or inhaled antifungal regimens.

Several documentations have stated the antifungal properties of the fatty acids of the coconut oil, and thus the coconut oil (Mary G. Enig, Ian Blair Hamilton and Cassandra Bond, Eric Armstrong).

Considering the above cited properties of coconut oil, the natural and the non toxic nature of coconut oil, mfonfu oil extracted from coconut was administered orally to HIV/AIDS patients suffering from fungal meningo-encephalitis.

GOAL

Reduce mortality attributable to fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients by using coconut oil (mfonfu oil) to treat fungal meningo-encephalitis.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the research were to assess the response of patients with meningo-encephalitis to coconut oil (mfonfu oil) therapy; prolong the lifespan of HIV/AIDS patients suffering from meningo-encephalitis; and initiate operational research and sophisticated laboratory research in the use of coconut oil for the treatment of fungal opportunistic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.

METHOD

The criteria for inclusion in the research were being HIV positive; having altered neurological and mental functions; absence of Kaposi or any neoplasm, tuberculosis and pregnancy.
Coconut oil was extracted from coconut by the author hence mfonfu oil. A questionnaire was used to register the patient’s identity; HIV, CD4 count with anti retroviral (ARV) treatment; clinical and diagnostic status; and the clinical evolution of patients under treatment.
Patients identified and recruited were visited at home and mfonfu oil (coconut oil) administered orally to them twice daily at a dose of 5ml.
All patients were taking antiretrovirals (ARV); those who were not on ARV were placed on ARV in the following week, except for the patient in coma. The setting of the research was in Bamenda from October 2007 to March 2008, at St Mary Soledad Catholic Health Centre.

RESULTS
The individual results of the seven patients treated are briefly presented below:

Case 1: Female, 36yrs, first consulted on 02/10/2007 with weight of 53kg, diagnosed HIV positive on 02/10/2007, Duration of present illness 3 months. Present symptoms and signs: headache, insomnia, nausea, alert, loss of memory, photophobia, cramps of lower limbs, numbness of lower limbs, paralysis of right upper limb. She had received vitamin B treatment for neuropathy. Diagnosis: Presumptive diagnosis of fungal meningo-encephalitis.
Date of start coconut oil (mfonfu oil): 02/10/2007. Most recent CD4 count on 08/10/2007 was 63cells/ml, was placed on antiretroviral drugs on 08/10/2007; Evolution under treatment: Weight after one month was 60kg; Disappearance of all symptoms and signs at the end of one month of treatment with mfonfu oil.

Case 2: Female, 44 yrs, first consulted on 25/10/2007, diagnosed HIV positive on 28/08/2007; Duration of illness 2 months; most recent CD4 count on 28/08/07 was 505 cells/ml, was not placed on antiretroviral drugs; Present symptoms and signs: Coma and advanced cachexia; Previous antibiotic treatment for bacterial meningitis, and fungal meningitis with fluconazole tablets. Diagnosis: Presumptive diagnosis of fungal meningo-encephalitis. Date of start coconut oil (mfonfu oil) was 25/10/2007; Evolution under treatment: Became conscious although confused, could talk and walk with support after five days of treatment with mfonfu oil (coconut oil); died after one month.

Case 3: Female, 35yrs, first consulted on 04/12/2007, diagnosed HIV positive on 26/12/2006, Most recent CD4 count on 30/11/2007 was 395cells/ml, was placed on antiretroviral drugs on 27/11/2007, duration of present illness 21 days, Present symptoms and signs: headache, insomnia, nausea, alert, walks supported, loss of memory, hallucination, delirium, sluggish speech, photophobia, cramps of lower limbs, numbness of lower limbs , right hemiplegia, right facial palsy; Previous Vitamin B treatment for peripheral neuropathy. Diagnosis: Presumptive diagnosis of fungal meningo-encephalitis. Date of start mfonfu oil (coconut oil): 04/12/2007
Evolution under treatment: Disappearance of all symptoms and signs at the end of first month of receiving mfonfu oil (coconut oil).

Case 4: Female, 47 yrs, first consulted on 19/12/2007 with weight of 70kg, diagnosed HIV positive on 30/06/2003; Most recent CD4 count on 30/11/2007 was 600cells/ml, placed on antiretroviral on 13/12/2005; Duration of present illness 1year 6months. Present symptoms and signs: headache, insomnia, loss of memory, alert, stiffness of legs on flexion-extension; weakness of lower limbs, photophobia, cramps of lower limbs, numbness of lower limbs. She had a previous Vitamin B treatment for peripheral neuropathy. Diagnosis of fungal meningo-encephalitis was presumptive. Date of start mfonfu oil (coconut oil): 19/12/2007. Evolution under treatment: Weight after first month was 78kg; Disappearance of symptoms and signs within the first month of receiving mfonfu oil (coconut oil).

Case 5: Female, 28 yrs, first consulted on 28/12/2007 with weight of 80kg, diagnosed HIV positive on 25/04/2004; most recent CD4 count on 30/08/2007 was 230 cells/ml. She was placed on antiretroviral drugs on 29/05/2004. Duration of present illness is 3 years 5months. Present symptoms and signs: headache, insomnia, alert, walks alone but staggering, loss of memory, delirium, sluggish speech, neck rigidity, left hemiplegia, left facial palsy, weakness of lower limbs, photophobia, cramps of lower limbs, Numbness of lower limbs. She had previously received antibiotic treatment for meningitis and Vitamin B treatment for peripheral neuropathy. Diagnosis of fungal meningo-encephalitis was presumptive. Date of start of mfonfu oil (coconut oil): 28/12/2007; Evolution under treatment: Disappearance of many major symptoms and signs within the second month of receiving mfonfu oil (coconut oil).

Case 6: Female, 35 yrs, first consulted on 02/01/2008 with weight of 50kg, diagnosed HIV positive on 20/12/2006. Most recent CD4 count on 07/08/2007 was 566cells/ml, was placed on antiretroviral drugs on 22/02/2007. Duration of present illness was 7 months. Present symptoms and signs: headache, insomnia, alert, loss of memory, stiffness of lower limbs on flexion-extension, photophobia, cramps of lower limbs, numbness of lower limbs, previous vitamin B treatment for peripheral neuropathy; diagnosis of fungal meningo-encephalitis was presumptive. Date of start coconut oil (mfonfu oil): 02/01/2008. Evolution under treatment: Weight after one month was 55kg and disappearance of all major symptoms and signs within first month of receiving coconut oil.

Case 7: Female, 34 yrs, first consulted on 14/01/2008 with weight of 61kg, diagnosed HIV positive on 14/01/2008; most recent CD4 count on 20/01/2008 was 312cells/ml, was placed on antiretroviral drugs on 21/01/2008. Duration of present illness is 8 months. Present symptoms and signs: alert, walks alone but staggering, and the lower limbs, loss of memory, altered speech, weakness of lower limbs, cramps of lower limbs, weakness of right upper limb, cramps of right upper limb, numbness of right lower limb, numbness of right upper limb, right hemiplegia, right facial palsy. Previous antibiotic treatment for meningitis and Vitamin B treatment for peripheral neuropathy; Diagnosis: Presumptive diagnosis of fungal meningo-encephalitis. Date of start mfonfu oil (coconut oil): 14/01/2008. Evolution under treatment: Weight after one month 65kg; Disappearance of major symptoms and signs within the second month of receiving mfonfu oil (coconut oil).

DISCUSSION

The diagnosis of meningo-encephalitis in the patients studied was presumptive based on medical history, clinical symptoms and signs; because of the absence of appropriate laboratory diagnostic facilities. All the patients treated had taken either an antibiotic treatment for meningitis or vitamin B therapy for peripheral neuropathy.

The response of the patients to treatment with coconut oil was spectacular and miraculous with the major symptoms and signs disappearing generally within the first month of starting treatment with mfonfu oil.

The rapid gain in weight was also very impressive and remarkable. The rapid weight gain may suggest that fungal infections may be greatly contributing to the rapid deterioration in health following contamination with HIV, and the presence of disseminated fungal infections.

Coconut oil has been described and used as treatment for fungal infections (Mary G. Enig, Ian Blair Hamilton and Cassandra Bond, Eric Armstrong) but coconut oil has not yet been used for the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients as shown in the World Health Organisation (WHO), and other treatment protocols for management of fungal opportunistic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS (WHO: Irina Eramova, Srdan Matic, Monique Munz; WHO, UNAIDS, International Council of Nurses, Maniar J, Jujar S).

This marvellous discovery by the author, ‘that coconut oil treats fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients’ is an inspired discovery from The Almighty God, for humanity.

The use of coconut oil for the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis HIV/AIDS is a discovery that will cause a major revolution in the management of HIV/AIDS patients. This breakthrough will open up many fields of research in the use of coconut oil in HIV/AIDS management, and will enhance change in the elaboration of protocols and modules on the treatment and management of fungal opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS.

Coconut oil is a combination of several fatty acids (caproic acid, caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid) with antifungal properties (Gudmundur Bergsson et al, Zdeňka Řiháková et al, Coaker MA et al) that act in synergy with cumulative effect rendering the coconut oil a very powerful and effective antifungal medicine. Its diffusion into the brain is very fast and excellent.

Coconut oil is obtained from coconut that is harvested from the coconut tree that grows in tropical countries. In Cameroon coconut oil will be available at a very low cost to all HIV/AIDS patients suffering from fungal meningo-encephalitis and other fungal infections. The production of coconut oil for therapeutic purpose will promote the opening of many coconut tree plantations and will consequently improve the economic wellbeing of the population in alleviating poverty. The same phenomenon will occur in all tropical countries; consequently coconut oil will be available to all countries of the world for the treatment of fungal infections at affordable cost.

The rapid recovery of patients treated is evidence that coconut oil is a very formidable and effective antifungal. There was no manifestation of toxicity. The best results are obtained when patients are treated as soon as they develop neurological and mental disorders, because brain damage due to long period of illness may either be repaired only after a very long period of treatment with coconut oil or may be irreversible. The patients regained all their mental and neurological faculties after recovery; the HIV encephalitis described in the natural evolution of HIV/AIDS may be aggravated by fungal infection of the brain.

The antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal properties of fatty acids of coconut oil, thus the coconut oil, have been described in several studies and references (Mary G. Enig; Ian Blair Hamilton and Cassandra Bond, Eric Armstrong); more detailed and elaborate research will have to be carried out to elucidate the superb role that coconut oil may play in the management of HIV/AIDS and fungal opportunistic infections.

CONCLUSION
The ‘use of coconut oil (mfonfu oil) for the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients’ is an inspired discovery from The Almighty God, for humanity, through Dr Mfonfu Daniel.

The response of patients to the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis with coconut oil (mfonfu oil) was spectacular and miraculous; proving that coconut oil (mfonfu oil) effectively treats fungal meningo-encephalitis, although the diagnosis and evaluation was clinically based.

The rapid gain in weight by the patients treated with coconut oil may indicate the existence of disseminated fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients and that the fungal infections may probably play a very important role in the deterioration in health following contamination with HIV, and in precipitating death.

Coconut is a natural and non toxic food that is grown and consumed abundantly in the tropics. Coconut oil, like the mfonfu oil, will be very much more easily accessible to all patients, particularly HIV/AIDS patients suffering from fungal meningo-encephalitis in resource-poor countries unlike the present expensive pharmaceutical antifungal drugs. However coconut oil will enrich the arsenal of antifungal medications for the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis and fungal infections in general in HIV/AIDS.

This discovery will open up millions of avenues for operational and high tech laboratory research on the management of fungal opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS using coconut oil.

HIV/AIDS, a worldwide pandemic formerly considered as a calamity, is gradually becoming an ordinary infection following the discovery of antiretrovirals, now the coconut oil for treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis and opportunistic fungal infections in general, and in the future other eventual positive therapeutic discoveries.

Coconut oil will constitute the corner stone in the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis and fungal infections in general especially in HIV/AIDS.

Nevertheless, the only treatment for HIV/AIDS remains prevention of the infection because there is no specific medication against HIV yet.

The early use of coconut oil (mfonfu oil) for the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis, in combination with ARV, will greatly prolong the lives of HIV/AIDS patients and thus reduce the burden of palliative care at home and bed occupancy in health care services.

This research on the use of coconut oil for the treatment of fungal meningo-encephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients was financed entirely by the author; it was an inspired research to improve the health status of humanity. Thanks be to God!


Author’s rights:
The use of coconut oil for the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients following this discovery must be done with the authorisation of:
Dr Mfonfu Daniel using the following address:
Tel: (237) 77 60 12 07
C/o St Mary Soledad Catholic Health Centre
P.O.Box 157, Mankon, Bamenda, Cameroon.

Barrister Mfonfu Jacob Pivaga at Douala – Cameroon
Tel: (237) 99 5 4 60 61
Email: pmfonfu@yahoo.fr

AppreciationI wish to express my special thanks to Mrs Dingana née Mfonfu Christina, Mr Dingana Faustin, Mr Folabit Mathiew, Mr Mfonfu Vincent Gudmia, Ba Mfonfu Paul, Dr Mfonfu Gabriel Sigala, Mrs Folabit née Mfonfu Josephine, Mrs Nchami née Mfonfu Regina, Mr Fombe Patrick, Mrs Fombe née Mfonfu Anna, Barrister Mfonfu Jacob Pivaga, Mr Mfonfu Emmanuel Gabila, Mr Fofung Emmanuel Mfonfu, Mrs Fomunung née Mfonfu Theresa, Mrs Tanyi née Mfonfu Justina, Mr Tanyi Paul, Mr Galega Raphael, Mr Mfonfu Babila Kevin, Mr Mfonfu Michael, Mrs Mfonfu née Ntali Mercy, Miss Ntali Christabel, and all members of the Mfonfu Family for their encouragement and assistance.
I sincerely thank Dr Nchifor Simon and Dr Lebga John for their moral support.
My immense thanks go to Mother Purificación, Matron of St Mary Soledad Health Centre.
I thank all those who have helped me in this preliminary on going research inspiration from The Almighty God.

REFERENCE
1) Chiara Carcianiga, Thursday, November 16, 2006; High mortality rates due to cryptococcal infection in South African antiretroviral-naïve populations can be prevented: www.aidsmap.com/en/news/39394C2F-FCFD-460E-8862-83A1BD67867E.asp
2) COAKER MA, VAZQUEZ JA, AKINS RA; Antifungal Activities of Short Chain Fatty Acids.Abstr Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Sep 17-20; 40: 397. gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/102246964.html.
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1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Hello,
I have recently been discharged with Dysexetive Dymenture after 14 yrs of recurring meningitis { Moleretes } same number of lumber punctures . Severe Frontal Lobe damage . Amazing for three weeks now have been taking Coconut oil ,the results have been a rapid recovery and reversal of short term memory loss ,also to boot an amazing boost of energy ,at 73 I have been rewarded . IThank God for His creating this simple remedy .
Keith Bond